Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
Goal 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere.
- Globally, the number of people living in extreme poverty
has declined by more than half from 1.9 billion in
1990. However, 836 million people still live in extreme
poverty. About one in five persons in developing regions
lives on less than $1.25 per day.
- Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are home to the
overwhelming majority of people living in extreme
- High poverty rates are often found in small, fragile and
- One in four children under age five in the world has
inadequate height for his or her age.
Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
- The vast majority of the world’s hungry people
live in developing countries, where 12.9% of the
population is undernourished.
- Sub-Saharan Africa is the region with the highest
prevalence (percentage of population) of hunger.
- 66 million primary school-age children in developing
countries attend classes hungry, with 23 million
in Africa alone.
Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
- 17,000 fewer children die each day than in 1990,
but more than six million children still die before
their fifth birthday each year.
- Despite global progress, an increasing proportion
of child deaths are in sub-Saharan Africa and
Southern Asia. Four out of every five deaths of
children under age five occur in these regions.
- Only half of women in developing regions receive
the recommended amount of health care.
Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
- Enrolment in primary education in developing
countries has reached 91%, but 57 million children
remain out of school.
- More than half of children who have not enrolled
in school live in sub-Saharan Africa.
- An estimated 50% of out-of-school children of primary school age live in conflict-affected areas.
- Children in the poorest households are 4 times as
likely to be out of school as children in the richest
Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
- In sub-Saharan Africa, Oceania and Western Asia,
girls still face barriers to entering both primary
and secondary school.
- Women in Northern Africa hold less than one in
five paid jobs in the non-agricultural sector.
- In 46 countries, women now hold more than 30%
of seats in national parliament in at least one
Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
- In 2015, 91% of the global population is using
an improved drinking water source, compared to
76% in 1990.
- However, 2.5 billion people lack
access to basic sanitation services, such as toilets
- Each day, an average of 5,000 children die due to
preventable water and sanitation-related diseases.
Goal 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
- 1.3 billion people – one in five globally – still lack
access to modern electricity.
- Energy is the dominant contributor to climate
change, accounting for around 60% of total global
greenhouse gas emissions.
- Energy from renewable resources – wind, water,
solar, biomass and geothermal energy – is inexhaustible
and clean. Renewable energy currently
constitutes 15% of the global energy mix.
Goal 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
- Global unemployment increased from 170 million
in 2007 to nearly 202 million in 2012, of which
about 75 million are young women and men.
- Nearly 2.2 billion people live below the US$2
poverty line and poverty eradication is only possible
through stable and well-paid jobs.
- 470 million jobs are needed globally for new
entrants to the labour market between 2016 and
Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
- About 2.6 billion people in the developing world
are facing difficulties in accessing electricity full
- 2.5 billion people worldwide lack access to basic
sanitation and almost 800 million people lack access
to water, many hundreds of millions of them
in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
- For many African countries, particularly the lower-
income countries, infrastructure constraints
affect company productivity by around 40%.
Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries
- On average – and taking into account population size – income inequality increased by 11% in developing countries between 1990 and 2010.
- A significant majority of households in developing
countries – more than 75% – are living today in
societies where income is more unequally distributed
than it was in the 1990s.
- Children in the poorest 20% of the population are
still up to three times more likely to die before
their fifth birthday than children in the richest
Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
- Half of humanity – 3.5 billion people – lives in
cities today. By 2030, almost 60% of the world’s
population will live in urban areas.
- 828 million people live in slums today and the
number keeps rising.
- Cities have the potential to either dissipate the
distribution of energy or optimise their efficiency
by reducing energy consumption and adopting
green – energy systems. For instance, Rizhao,
China has turned itself into a solar – powered city;
in its central districts, 99% of households already
use solar water heaters.
Goal 12: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
- 1.3 billion tonnes of food are wasted every year.
- If people worldwide switched to energy-efficient
lightbulbs, the world would save US$120 billion
- Should the global population reach 9.6 billion
by 2050, the equivalent of almost three planets
could be required to provide the natural resources
needed to sustain current lifestyles.
Goal 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
- The greenhouse gas emissions from human activities
are driving climate change and continue
to rise. They are now at their highest levels in
history. Global emissions of carbon dioxide have
increased by almost 50% since 1990.
- Each of the last three decades has been successively
warmer at the Earth’s surface than any
preceding decade since 1850.
- It is still possible, using an array of technological
measures and changes in behaviour, to limit the
increase in global mean temperature to two degrees
Celsius above pre-industrial levels.
Goal 14: Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources
- Oceans, which cover three-quarters of the Earth’s surface, absorb about 30% of carbon dioxide produced
by humans, buffering the impacts of global
- Oceans serve as the world’s largest source of protein,
with more than 3 billion people depending
on the oceans as their primary source.
- As much as 40% of world oceans are heavily
affected by human activities, including pollution,
depleted fisheries, and loss of coastal habitats.
Goal 15: Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
- Thirteen million hectares of forests are being lost
- Around 1.6 billion people depend on forests for
their livelihood. This includes some 70 million
- 2.6 billion people depend directly on agriculture,
but 52% of the land used for agriculture is moderately
or severely affected by soil degradation.
Goal 16: Promote peaceful and inclusive societies, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions
- The number of refugees of concern to the United
Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
stood at 13 million in mid-2014, up from a
- Corruption, bribery, theft and tax evasion cost
some US $1.26 trillion for developing countries
- The rate of children leaving primary school in
conflict-affected countries reached 50% in 2011,
which amounts to 28.5 million children.
Goal 17: Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development
- Official development assistance (ODA) stood at
approximately $135 billion in 2014.
- In 2014, 79% of imports from developing countries
entered developed countries duty-free.
- 30% of the world’s youth are digital natives, active
online for at least five years.